China has the world`s second largest economy and accounts for more than 40% of international trade, but as of May 2020, only 1.79% of global payments were made through the RMB. The international dominance of the U.S. dollar, China`s reluctance to move resolutely on one side of the «impossible trinity» and the illiquidity of offshore RMB have tempered the international attitude towards the currency. In response, Beijing has tried to combat the dominance of the U.S. dollar and replenish offshore liquidity through its «One Belt, One Road» initiative, a large-scale overseas infrastructure program. With «attractive» loan packages, China is making new friends in less developed regions and trying to form an early network of RMB users. On 12 December 2007, the Federal Reserve extended the swap lines to the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Swiss National Bank (SNB). Demand for dollars from European banks had soared and increased the volatility of US dollar interest rates. Swap lines should «oppose increased pressure on short-term financing markets» and do so without the Fed having to directly finance foreign banks. There are two main types of currency exchanges. The fixed-rate swap involves the exchange of fixed interest payments in one currency for fixed interest payments in another. Under the fixed floating swap, fixed-rate payments are exchanged in one currency for variable interest payments in another currency.
For the latter type of swap, the amount of capital of the underlying loan is not exchanged. At the end of this page, you can explore in detail the development of central bank currency swets through an interactive map. The introductory slideshow that follows shows you briefly how these agreements have evolved year after year with respect to central banks and the amount of funds involved. In another case of use of the BSA, Russia put its swap agreement online between October 2015 and March 2016. In a press release from the Central Bank of Russia, it was not said that the funds had been allocated to a limited number of Russian and Chinese partners with the aim of «supporting bilateral trade and direct investment between the two countries». As such, trade experts have suggested that the RMB has finally made its way to Russian companies and that the funds have been used in trade with China, leading to tighter regulation between the two countries. Update on 14.04.2020: India is discussing a bilateral sweatshirt line with the United States. The ECB set up swap lines with Sweden in December 2007, the SNB and Denmark in October 2008 and the Bank of England in December 2010. The euro area, Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom have relatively low foreign exchange reserves, which have been in times of crisis, as the costs of holding reserves and assuming an increase in demand in the foreseeable future are too low. However, banks in these countries borrowed large amounts of foreign currency in the years leading up to the crisis. When it became difficult for them to borrow money in 2008, they turned to their central banks, whose reserves proved insufficient to meet unexpected demand. The ECB swap lines were therefore set up in 2009 to provide Sweden and Denmark with euros to reload their foreign exchange reserves, and the swap line with the central bank was invited to provide Swiss francs to the ECB.